Local Fields Best Practices, FAQ, and Tables

This page includes:

  • Best Practices
  • FAQ/Notes
  • Table 1 – Local Fields in Alma & Primo (Overview)
  • Table 2 – Local Fields in Primo (Details)

Download .docx version put together by Cathy Chapman on 6/22/2016. (Updated 12/11/2020).

Best Practices

  • Use local fields for the uses defined in the table of Local Fields in Alma & Primo (below). If a local field is needed for a new use, submit a description of the new requirement to the CWT’s Technical Services Working Group which will coordinate the necessary changes.
  • Most local fields in Alma are designed to mimic a specific non-local MARC 21 field. The local and non-local field equivalencies are shown in the table of Local Fields in Alma & Primo (below). It is essential that local fields that are designed to mimic regular MARC 21 fields must be formatted in the same way as those MARC 21 fields, including indicators and use of subfields, as the Primo normalization rules that control display and searchability are designed based on the assumption that the local fields will be formatted the same as the relevant non-local field.
  • Include the name (or abbreviation) of your institution in local headings whenever possible and appropriate. This will inform patrons from other Alliance libraries which copy of a resource, or to which institution’s collection, the heading or note applies. In the current catalog environment patrons are likely to see bibliographic information from multiple libraries.
    • Note: The 2016 Local Fields Review Group identified a problem in Primo where using an Ex Libris customer institution code (often, but not always, the same as the normal abbreviation for an institution) causes a problem with the search, even if the abbreviation is present in the heading or in the field containing the heading. This problem was reported in April 2016 in Alliance Salesforce Case #00217673 and we are waiting for a response from Ex Libris Development.
  • Until this software bug is fixed, institutions should continue to include their institution name in headings where it makes sense (for example, ‘Associated Students Collections (Western Washington University)’ rather than ‘Associated Students Collections’). Using institution names in local headings will not cause any problem in Primo and will assist patrons in other institutions knowing which institution a heading is associated with. However, making changes to existing local headings is not required until the bug is fixed and standard institutional abbreviations can be used either in the heading or as a heading qualifier.
  • Be aware that until this bug is fixed, using an abbreviation (for example, ‘Associated Students Collections (WWU)’ may cause a problem in Primo (as described in the working group’s report) if both a) your institution abbreviation and your Ex Libris customer code are the same, and b) a patron uses that abbreviation as a term in a Primo search. Until this bug is fixed, it is recommended institutions not add an additional field (for example, a subfield $5) containing the institution’s abbreviated name to headings or notes, unless it is a practice already in place at your institution. As soon as Ex Libris fixes this Primo software bug, these best practices will be reviewed and modified as appropriate.

FAQ/Notes

  • Information about Local Fields in Alma Online Help. The main online help page on local fields is “Local Extensions to Bibliographic Records in the Network Zone.”
  • Adding Local Fields using the ME. There are two methods of creating local fields in Alma. The first method is to use the Edit > Add Local Field (Ctrl+L) command in the Metadata Editor. When using this command, Alma creates a field with an invisible subfield $9 containing the string “local” (all lower case). This subfield $9 is used by Alma to mark fields as local, i.e., they are stored in an institution’s Institution Zone and are not lost when the bib record in the NZ is overlaid by the WorldCat record. Although this subfield $9 is not displayed in Alma (the local field building icon is displayed instead), it is present in local fields when bib records are exported.
    • Note: Using “local” or “LOCAL” in a subfield $9 both work in Alma, i.e., Alma treats headings with either string as a local field. Just be careful to either a) be consistent in which form you use in your local fields, or b) when creating normalization rules be sure to test for the presence of either string before adding a new subfield $9.
  • Adding Local Fields using Norm Rules. The second method of adding local fields is to a normalization rule to add a local field one-at-a-time in the Metadata Editor, or to batch add a local field to a set of bib records. The normalization rule must include the addSubfield command as shown below:

then

addField “590.a.Gift of Julie Andrews.”

addSubField “590.9.local” if (not exists “590.9.local”)

end

  • How NOT to Add Local Fields. Using the Metadata Editor Edit > Add Field (F8) command and then add the “$$9local” subfield in the ME does NOT work. The field will be a normal field in the NZ and will be lost when the NZ bib record is overlaid. Similarly, adding the “$9 local” subfield in Connexion before downloading the bib record into Alma will also NOT work, and the new field will again be lost when the NZ bib record is overlaid.
  • Changing a Field’s Behavior vs. Using a Different Field. If a library has data in a particular local field and that local field does not have the characteristics that they want for that data in terms of display, searchability, and clickability, rather than requesting changes to that field’s characteristics, consider moving the data to a different local field that has the desired characteristics. This can be done by using a norm rule to change the field tag (using the ChangeField command) and, if not already present, add the subfield $9.
  • Alliance Reserved Fields. Fields 972-986 are reserved for use as Alliance-wide notes. Any use of these local note fields will be added to this table after the use is approved by the SCTS Cataloging Standing Group.
  • Institution Reserved Fields. Fields 962-971 are reserved for local institution-defined internal notes. Any Alliance library is free to define any of these fields for local use. No attempt will be made to coordinate consistent use across Alliance libraries. These local internal note fields do not publish to Primo.
  • OCLC Reserved Fields. Fields 950, 951, 956, 987, 989-999 are reserved for OCLC use per information contained in OCLC’s Bibliographic Formats and Standards and are not to be used for Alliance or local use in Alma or Primo.
  • Phrase vs. Keyword Searching. Local fields cannot be made “phrase” or “keyword” searchable in Primo, as the Primo normalization rules only control what metadata is indexed for search. They have no influence on how Primo actually searches the data in those search indexes. Phrase versus keyword functionality is controlled in Primo by the user’s search mode. When using basic search, clicking on a hyperlink executes a keyword search. When using advanced search, clicking on the hyperlink executes a phrase search.

Table 1 – Local Fields in Alma & Primo (Overview)

Local fieldDefinitionFormat as ifPublished to Primo?Primo Index(es)Displays to all Primo users or local only?Clickable link in Primo?
09XLocal call number
59XLocal notes index
590-594Local institution-defined public notes500YeskeywordLocal onlyNo
595Local source of acquisition541YesKeywordLocal onlyNo
596Local access restrictions506YeskeywordLocal onlyNo
597Local use/reproduction terms540YeskeywordLocal onlyNo
598Local standard numberYeskeywordLocal onlyNo
599Local institution-defined public note500YeskeywordLocal onlyNo
69XLocal subjects index
690Local–Topical Term650Yeskeyword, subjectAllYes
691Local–Geographic Name651Yeskeyword, subjectAllYes
693Local uncontrolled index term653Yeskeyword, subjectAllYes
694Local Form/Genre655Yeskeyword, subjectAllYes
695Added Class Number090YeskeywordLocal onlyNo
696Local Subject Added Entry–Personal Name600Yeskeyword, subjectAllYes
697Local Subject Added Entry–Corporate Name610Yeskeyword, subjectAllYes
698Local Subject Added Entry–Meeting Name611Yeskeyword, subjectAllYes
699Local Subject Added Entry–Uniform Title630Yeskeyword, subjectAllYes
9XXAlliance-defined local fields
921Alliance-defined CR_RESTRICTED field for course reserve recordsNo
952Local Added Entry–Personal Name700Yeskeyword, nameAllYes
953Local Added Entry–Corporate Name710Yeskeyword, nameAllYes
954Local Added Entry–Meeting Name711Yeskeyword, nameAllYes
955Local Added Entry–Uniform Title730Yeskeyword, titleAllNo
957Local Hierarchical Place Name752Yeskeyword, nameAllYes
958Local Added Entry–Local Journal Titles299Yeskeyword, titleAllNo
959Local Added Entry–Varying Form of Title246Yeskeyword, titleAllNo
960Local Added Entry–Uncontrolled Related/Analytical Title740Yeskeyword, titleAllNo
961Local Series Added Entry–Uniform Title830Yeskeyword, titleAllNo
978Alliance-defined internal note: III .b numberNo
980Alliance-defined internal note: Order Information (e.g., WCP/PromptCat)No
981Alliance-defined internal note: Order Information (e.g., WCP/PromptCat)No

Table 2 – Local Fields in Primo (Details)

Local fieldDefinitionAdded to which field(s) in PNX record?Norm rule notes
09XLocal call number
59XLocal notes index
590-594Local institution-defined public notesDisplay/lds06 – Local Notes OR Display/lds07 – Local NotesDisplay/lds06: $9LOCAL must be present, $I[inst] added to end of lds06 from 590$A, which contains 01ALLIANCE_[INST]. If no value is present in 59X $A, field is added to Display/lds07. $9LOCAL must be present, record not in NZ, $I[inst] added to end of lds07 from MARC INST value.
595Local source of acquisitionDisplay/lds06 – Local Notes OR Display/lds07 – Local NotesDisplay/lds06: $9LOCAL must be present, $I[inst] added to end of lds06 from 590$A, which contains 01ALLIANCE_[INST]. If no value is present in 59X $A, field is added to Display/lds07. $9LOCAL must be present, record not in NZ, $I[inst] added to end of lds07 from MARC INST value.
596Local access restrictionsDisplay/lds06 – Local Notes OR Display/lds07 – Local NotesDisplay/lds06: $9LOCAL must be present, $I[inst] added to end of lds06 from 590$A, which contains 01ALLIANCE_[INST]. If no value is present in 59X $A, field is added to Display/lds07. $9LOCAL must be present, record not in NZ, $I[inst] added to end of lds07 from MARC INST value.
597Local use/reproduction termsDisplay/lds06 – Local Notes OR Display/lds07 – Local NotesDisplay/lds06: $9LOCAL must be present, $I[inst] added to end of lds06 from 590$A, which contains 01ALLIANCE_[INST]. If no value is present in 59X $A, field is added to Display/lds07. $9LOCAL must be present, record not in NZ, $I[inst] added to end of lds07 from MARC INST value.
598Local standard numberDisplay/lds06 – Local Notes OR Display/lds07 – Local NotesDisplay/lds06: $9LOCAL must be present, $I[inst] added to end of lds06 from 590$A, which contains 01ALLIANCE_[INST]. If no value is present in 59X $A, field is added to Display/lds07. $9LOCAL must be present, record not in NZ, $I[inst] added to end of lds07 from MARC INST value.
599Local institution-defined public noteDisplay/lds06 – Local Notes OR Display/lds07 – Local NotesDisplay/lds06: $9LOCAL must be present, $I[inst] added to end of lds06 from 590$A, which contains 01ALLIANCE_[INST]. If no value is present in 59X $A, field is added to Display/lds07. $9LOCAL must be present, record not in NZ, $I[inst] added to end of lds07 from MARC INST value.
69XLocal subjects index
690Local–Topical TermDisplay/lds 31 – Subject
691Local–Geographic NameDisplay/lds 31 – Subject
693Local uncontrolled index termDisplay/lds 31 – Subject
694Local Form/GenreDisplay/lds 31 – Subject
695Added Class NumberDisplay/lds06 – Local Notes OR Display/lds07 – Local NotesDisplay/lds06: $9LOCAL must be present, $I[inst] added to end of lds06 from 590$A, which contains 01ALLIANCE_[INST]. If no value is present in 59X $A, field is added to Display/lds07. $9LOCAL must be present, record not in NZ, $I[inst] added to end of lds07 from MARC INST value.
696Local Subject Added Entry–Personal NameDisplay/lds 31 – Subject
697Local Subject Added Entry–Corporate NameDisplay/lds 31 – Subject
698Local Subject Added Entry–Meeting NameDisplay/lds 31 – Subject
699Local Subject Added Entry–Uniform TitleDisplay/lds 31 – Subject
9XXAlliance-defined local fields
952Local Added Entry–Personal NameDisplay/lds10 – Unnamed AND Display/lds32 – Local AuthorsDisplay/lds10: All applicable MARC fields are merged into one lds10, separated by semicolons. Display/lds32: All applicable MARC fields are merged into one lds32, separated by semicolons.
953Local Added Entry–Corporate NameDisplay/lds10 – Unnamed AND Display/lds32 – Local AuthorsDisplay/lds10: All applicable MARC fields are merged into one lds10, separated by semicolons. Display/lds32: All applicable MARC fields are merged into one lds32, separated by semicolons.
954Local Added Entry–Meeting NameDisplay/lds10 – Unnamed AND Display/lds32 – Local AuthorsDisplay/lds10: All applicable MARC fields are merged into one lds10, separated by semicolons. Display/lds32: All applicable MARC fields are merged into one lds32, separated by semicolons.
955Local Added Entry–Uniform TitleDisplay/lds10 – UnnamedDisplay/lds10: All applicable MARC fields are merged into one lds10, separated by semicolons.
957Local Hierarchical Place NameDisplay/lds10 – Unnamed AND Display/lds32 – Local AuthorsDisplay/lds10: All applicable MARC fields are merged into one lds10, separated by semicolons. Display/lds32: All applicable MARC fields are merged into one lds32, separated by semicolons.
958Local Added Entry–Local Journal TitlesDisplay/lds10 – UnnamedDisplay/lds10: All applicable MARC fields are merged into one lds10, separated by semicolons.
959Local Added Entry–Varying Form of TitleDisplay/lds10 – UnnamedDisplay/lds10: All applicable MARC fields are merged into one lds10, separated by semicolons.
960Local Added Entry–Uncontrolled Related/Analytical TitleDisplay/lds10 – UnnamedDisplay/lds10: All applicable MARC fields are merged into one lds10, separated by semicolons.
961Local Series Added Entry–Uniform TitleDisplay/lds10 – UnnamedDisplay/lds10: All applicable MARC fields are merged into one lds10, separated by semicolons.

Background

Software: Alma

Current phase: Phase 5: Approved

Written by: Bob Thomas

Approved by: Technical Services Working Group on 6/21/2016

Last updated: 12/11/2020

Nature of last update: added 595,596,and 597 reserved fields.

Document History:

  • Updated on 12/11/2020 to add 595, 596, and 597 reserved local notes.
  • Updated on 12/6/2019 to account for 972 and 977 markers.
  • Updated on 7/30/2018 to account for 979 bound-with marker.
  • Updated on 2/7/2017 to account for 77X and 78X fields.
  • Originally approved by Technical Services Working Group on 6/21/2016
  • A first draft of the Local Fields Best Practices was presented for discussion on the Collaborative Workforce Program Blog. Minor changes were made based on received comments including clarification on the problems with Primo when using an Ex Libris customer institution code.